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February 07 2012

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best pheromones for men review

Anybody who spends time near a swamp can easily hear that frogs use their voices to chitchat, however it wasn’t until about 20 years ago that researchers announced that these animals also speak to water-transported protein pheromones.
Now new research shows frogs banter with airborne chemicals too.
“It’s the initial proof that frogs use volatile pheromones” to speak, says Schultz, a chemical ecologist on the Technical University of Braunschweig, in Germany. In reality, it’s the very first proof that any amphibians communicate using chemicals in the air, he adds (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., DOI)

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“So few pheromones happen to be chemically identified in vertebrates, so this is really exciting news,” an amphibian biologist at Duquesne University. She points out that biologists tried behavioral studies suggesting frogs used airborne pheromones, but none have been identified until now.

Within the new study, Schulz collaborated with TU Braunschweig zoologist Miguel Vences and Harvard University’s Katharina Wollenberg, who visited Madagascar to examine a nearby category of frogs called Mantellidae.

Male Mantellidae frogs have bulbous organs on the inner thighs called femoral glands, and it’s from all of these sacs how the team isolated two molecules that waft through the air as pheromones, namely 8-methyl-2-nonanol along with a macrolide called phoracantholide J.

The c's found that Mantellidae frogs will hop toward an assortment of these two molecules and that different species have different ratios of which inside their femoral glands. Precisely what these frogs assert with all the molecules is up up, but Schulz has some speculations.

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“Frogs exist in high species diversity during these swampy areas-there are about 100 species,” Schulz says. Even though the different species croak uniquely, the frog density is really high that “it can often be difficult to find a mate of the correct species.” Probably the odors help with species recognition, he suggests.
The new research also confirms the results of frog genome sequencing, Woodley says. Frog DNA has a variety of genes for volatile chemical receptors, but nobody knew whether or not they were functional genes or perhaps an artifact of evolution. “It works out they may be functional,” she adds.

Schulz’s team isolated a handful of other alcohols and macrolides from the frogs’ femoral glands, such as a new natural product called gephyromantolide A. They also devised a brand new synthetic route for building the ringed molecules which uses a reaction called Corey-Nicolaou macrolactonization. The path, the shortest such path ever reported, provided enough sample to check which with the additional molecules are pheromones.

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